Where Kotler was wrong
In Philip Kotler’s world marketing is technocratic. Human aspects are in fact neglected especially when it comes to the 4P marketing mix. The serious nature of this is exposed in how the Ps are conceived. P for product is mixed with Ps for Price, Promotion and Place. If the other Ps in the series are changed, the perceived product is also changed as a consequence. That is, if you are concerned with how human beings perceive reality. Consequently, the 4P marketing mix does not reflect the reactions of real humans. Kotler does not either seem to realize the crucial dualism between price and value. Value being a function of the buyer’s perception of the product (the offer including metaproduct and brand) including the price set by the seller. Thus, the buyer’s sense of value decides if there will be a transaction or not. In all, Philip Kotler has done much to promote marketing, but also, in his role as world famous author and speaker and status as guru, he has restrained the theory of the discipline and its development. Follow thislink to learn more.